Communicative aims

– Give a formal presentation, discursive in nature, on a chosen subject, with an identifiable structure and sequence, using discourse connectors and cohesive devices
– Introduce the presentation, develop particular points, give supporting reasons and examples
– Initiate and engage the listener in a discussion of some of the points made
– Share the responsibility with the listener for the maintenance of the discussion
– Respond to requests for clarification or elaboration
– Defend a point of view and develop an argument further
– Take responsibility for the direction and maintenance of an interaction
– Utilise turn-taking conventions to ensure that an interaction flows and develops naturally
– Offer new contributions to influence the direction of a conversation
– Participate without much obvious searching for expressions


Language functions

– Developing an argument

– Defending a point of view

– Expressing beliefs

– Expressing opinions tentatively

– Summarising information, ideas and arguments

– Deducing


– Review of the grammar from Trinity 9

– More complex structures to express thought clearly

– Improving accuracy of complex tenses


– Phrases and expressions relating to the language functions listed above

– Idiomatic expressions and colloquialisms

– Modifying words, e.g. basically, quite, certainly

– Intensifiers, e.g. absolutely, completely, totally

– Tentative expressions, e.g. I may be wrong but…

– Signposting words, e.g. firstly, finally


– The correct pronunciation of vocabulary related to the above lists

– Sounds with minimal interference from the first language

– A range of stress and intonation patterns, pitch and volume to:

* engage and maintain the examiner’s interest

* signal the provision of new information

* indicate discourse structure